- What is a minerals? What are the common mineral?
- Acceptance sampling
- Absolute pressure
- Ultra basic
- Umpire sample (assay)
- Uninterruptible power supply (UPS)
- Unloading valve
- Viscosity index
- White damp
- Wobble plate
- The application of force over a definite distance
- Yard (yd)
- Zone of oxidation
- What are the types of thickeners?
What are the types of thickeners?
The various types of thickeners may be grouped as follows:
Thickeners are a major component in a plant layout and their selection may be critical for several reasons:
They occupy large spaces as may be seen from the aerial photograph of three large thickeners.
They are normally positioned far away from the center of the plant and owing to the large flows they are fed by gravity to save pumping. Therefore their position for a given hydraulic gradient may determine the elevation of the entire plant.
Rake driven thickeners for continuous operation can impose a substantial burden on capital investment.
Unlike many other types of equipment, thickeners have no stand-bys so if one goes out of commission it cannot be by-passed. Consequently, if this happens other thickeners have to take the extra load but if the plant incorporates just one thickener then the entire production line must stop.
To take a thickener out of commission for repairs inside the tank such as damaged blades, or rubber lining may take days since it requires to empty the tank, remove the underflow bed, refill it and find a suitable storage or disposal site for very large volumes of liquid.
Type of Thickener Drive
|Type of Thickener Drive||Torque Rating|
|Bridge with Worm Gear Drive||3000-140000 Nm|
|Bridge with Spur Gear Drive||20000-1440000 Nm|
|Column with Spur Gear Drive||27000-3270000 Nm|
In broad terms they are incorporated in flowsheets for the following purposes:
- Thickening in the downward direction to increase underflow density generally to reduce the size of downstream filters or centrifuges.
- Clarification in the upward direction to reduce the amount of fines that report to the overflow to meet:
- statutory requirements for effluent quality.
- recycled overflow clarity for internal process requirements.
- reduction in loss of product to the overflow.
- Hydroseparation in the upward direction to classify and remove a desired particle size fraction or solids of a different property by controlling the overflow rate. Hydroseparators are not discussed in this section.
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